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Saturday, August 18, 2007

History of Youth Work Timeline

Over the next while, I am going to use this post to consolidate a variety of primary and seconday source materials to assemble a timeline for the history of youth work. There are a variety of different starting points that people identify. If you have any additional recommendations, I would appreciate your help! (Last update: February, 2008).

I have delineated between youth ministry in black; youth service in red; and youth work and ministry in blue. For Salvation Army references, I have colored these green.

Here's what I have put together so far:

Justin Martyr
comments on how so many men and women became disciples of Christ from childhood in his I Apology 1.15.
(May et al, 2005: 91)

Emporers Valentian, Valens and Gratian
make infanticide a crime punishable by death. This was largely due to the advocacy of Christians to help protect the lives of young children.
(May, 2005: 91)

The catechumenal form of Christian education reaches its peak of popularity. It declined in effectiveness once it became expected of children to be baptized and when pagans, lacking genuine motivation for joining the faith, were commanded by law to attend church.

These schools provided a context for learning that integrated religious values, philosophy, and high moral standards. These were associated with local church congregations but welcomed both Christians and non-Christians in the community of study. The curriculum included Bible, theology, literature, philosophy, history, science, and critical thinking and rhetorical debating skills.
(May et al, 2005: 92f.)

4th Century
Augustine of Hippo wrestles with the concept of whether infants who died without being baptized were condemned. He writes about the innate depravity of infants and children in his Confessions. He introduces the doctrine of original sin.
(May et al, 2005: 93)

5th Century
Infant baptism becomes a well-established practice, with godparents playing a more significant role in the responsibility of teaching the faith. During this time, oral traditions, (Apostles Creed, Lord's Prayer, Commandments, moral instruction, etc.); popular practices of piety (holy days, processions, wayside shrines, pilgrimages, adoration of saints, passion plays, dramas) and visual representations (stained-glass windows, carving, and statues illustrating Biblical scenes) were all used to aid in teaching and instruction of children. Monastaries were also introduced to preserve and develop instruction in the Christian faith. Monastic instruction was guided by moral and religious purposes and included reading, writing, arithmetic, singing and the elements of Christian doctrine.
(May et al, 2005: 94)

9th Century
Alcuin of York leads a palace school under the orders of Charlemagne - who sparked a major educational revival when he insisted that every cathedral and monestary had to establish a school. Alcuin helped to develop new teaching methods including positive motivation, simplification of complex concepts, valuing individual gifts, and conversation.
(May et al, 2005: 94f)

(ITALY) Cardinal Borromeo in Milan, Italy founds the first Sunday School for the instruction of the young. He was a significant personality in the counter-Reformation of the Roman Catholic church.
(International Sunday School Convention, 1905: 113)

(FRANCE) Abbe de Salle established the first Sunday School in Paris. He was considered an innovator in Christian education.
(International Sunday School Convention, 1905: 113)

(UK) The Reverend Joseph Alleine was in the habit of drawing young pupils together for instruction on Sundays.
(Lee, 1885: 73)

Bishop Wilson
instituted schools in the Isle of Man.
(Lee, 1885: 73)

1740 - 1747
(USA) Euphrats, Lancaster Pennsylvania, the Seventh Day Baptists begin a Sunday School.
(Lee, 1885: 73)

Mrs. Catharine Cappe and Rev. Theophilus Lindsey gather the young at Catterick.
(Lee, 1885: 73)

Dr. Kennedy establishes a Sunday School in Bright parish.
(Lee, 1885: 73)


(UK) Hannah Ball founds a school in Buckinghamshire, England. She was a Wesleyan Methodist. This was the germ of the modern Sunday School movement and drew on the methods of instruction used by Luther, Knox and St. Charles Borrmeo.
(Wikipedia, Sunday School; Lee, 1885: 73 )

Reverend David Simpson opened a Sunday School in Macclesfield and another by Adam Crompton.
(Lee, 1885: 73)

(UK) Robert Raikes provides minimal secular and religious education to new classes of people. people who were victims of but potential agents in the rising industrial order. He is often considered the founder of the modern Sunday School.
(Marty, 1970: 75; Lee, 1885: 168)

(UK) Hannah More, a friend of William Wilberforce organizes a program of elementary education, religious instruction and vocational training.
(Brierly, 2003: 30)

(USA) William Elliott established a Sunday School in Accomac County in Virginia, USA.
(Marty, 1970: 75)

(USA) In Boston, the Sunday School Union is formed.
(Marty, 1970: 76)

(USA) In Philadephia, a Sunday School Union is formed.
(Marty, 1970: 76)

(USA) The American Sunday School Union is chartered
(Marty, 1970: 78)

(USA) The American Temperance Society is established. Within five years there are 2 200 local chapters with 170 000 members who pledge to abstain from drinking alcoholic bevereges. Within ten years, there are over 8 000 local groups and more than 1 500 000 members. These organizations were focused on the preservation of literate, respectable and evangelical youth.
(Wikipedia, American Temperance Society, 2007; Senter, 1992: 87)

(USA) ASSU announces its intention to institute "a Sunday School in every destitute place where it is practicable throughout the Valley of the Mississippi."
(Marty, 1970: 78)

(UK) There are 1 250 000 children who attend Sunday School weekly in Great Britain - approximately 25% of the population.
(Wikipedia, Sunday School)

(USA) The New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics and Other Workingmen condemn child labor.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(USA) Early trade unions at the National Trades' Union Convention propose state minimum age laws for factory work.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(USA) Massachusetts creates the First state child labor law where children under 15 working in factories have to attend school for at least 3 months per year.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(USA) Massachusetts limits children's work days to 10 hours. Many states follow, but do not consistently enforce.
(Child Labor, 2007)


(UK) George Williams, inspired by the Sunday School movement, founded the Young Men's Christian Society, later known as the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA).
(Brierly, 2003: 30)

(USA) YMCA comes to America.
(Senter, 1992: 90)


(UK) Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) is founded
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(USA) YWCA comes to America.
(Senter, 1992: 90)

(USA) President Abraham Lincoln visits and speaks at the largest Sunday School in America, led by D.L. Moody
(Wikipedia, Dwight L Moody, 2007)

(USA) The first modern summer camp is founded by Frederick and Abigal Gunn (from Washington, CT), who took their home school for boys on a two-week hiking trip. They named this 'Gunnery Camp.'
(Wikipedia, American Camping Association, 2007)

(UK) William and Catherine Booth begin The East London Christian Mission which eventually becomes The Salvation Army.
(Magnuson, 1977: 2)

(USA & UK) Child evangelist, E.P. Hammond, at the invitation of D.L. Moody and Charles Spurgeon, develops The Wordless Book - intended to help the illiterate understand the gospel (modifying the book in 1875 by adding a fourth color to the three colored book)
(Moore, 2008)

(UK) The Children's Special Service Mission (CSSM) begins after Josiah Spiers takes his Sunday School class to a special children's meeting led by American evangelist, Payson Hammond. This helped to develop the idea of age-appropriate service content - designing these meetings specifically for children. This eventually becomes Scripture Union.
(Brierly, 2003: 36; Scripture Union, 2007)

(UK) Josiah Spiers begins a beach program for children where he tells them stories about Jesus.
(Scripture Union, 2007)

(UK) The Girls' Friendly Society (GFS) is the first Anglican organization run entirely by lay women.
(Brierly, 2003: 36f)

(USA) Working Men's Party proposes banning the employment of children under the age of 14.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(UK) Lord Shaftesbury, concerned for the safety of middle class lives and property, recognizes the need for a peaceful, happy and moral population. The Archbishop of York declared, "If we in the Church of England do not deal with the masses, the masses will deal with us."
(Brierly, 2003: 33)

(UK) Maude Stanley develops work with young women around the Five Dials area of London.
(Wikipedia, History of Youth Work, 2007)

(UK) The Christian Mission officially becomes The Salvation Army.
(Magnuson, 1977: 3)

(USA) Eliza Shirley at age 16 along with her parents arrive in Philadelphia and unofficially begin the work of The Salvation Army.
(McKinley, 1980:2f)

(USA) The Salvation Army officially begins its' work in the United States when George Scott Railton and the seven Hallelujah Lassies arrived in New York City on March 10, 1880.
(McKinley, 1980: 1)

(USA) Christian Endeavor is founded in Portland, Maine by Francis E. Clark. He began training and equiping young leaders to become leaders within the local church. He crafted a pledge which listed all the things the young Christian would do to apply Christianity. 57 young people sign-up.
(Christian Endeavor, 2007)

(USA) The first National Convention of the American Federation of Labor passes a resolution calling on states to ban children under 14 from all gainful employment.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(UK) Inspired by George Williams, William Smith founds the Boys' Brigade at North Woodside Mission Hall in Glasgow, Scotland. He fuses military-style drill and Bible study.
(Brierly, 2003: 31)

(USA) The New York Labor movement, headed by Samuel Gompers, successfully sponsors legislation prohibiting cigar making in tenements, where thousands of young children work in the trade.
(Chidl Labor, 2007)

(USA) YMCA begins Camp Dudley, the oldest running continually running boys' camp in America in Westport, New York. This is founded by Sumner F. Dudley.
(Camp Dudley, 2007)

(UK) Frances E. Clark comes to England upon the invitation of the Sunday School Union to help begin the Christian Endeavor.
(Brierly, 2003: 32)

(USA) The Salvation Army opens a creche or daycare on Cherry Street, New York for infants whose mothers were forced to work, were in jail for short terms, or who had simply been neglected.
(McKinley, 1980: 55)

(UK) Maud Stanley states that clubs for working girls were important because they could 'make her conscious of her own responsibilities both towards God and man' and in doing so 'give her an influence over her sweetheart, her husband and her sons'.
(Brierly, 2003: 35)

(USA) The Salvation Army's Headquarters orders each Corps to conduct two meetings for young people on Sunday afternoons and Wednesday evenings. These were called 'company meetings' that were instructional in nature, teaching children doctrine, singing and the basic practices of Salvation Army methodologies. After a period of preparation, the young people signed an affirmation of The Salvation Army's eleven doctrines and joined the ranks as 'junior soldiers.'
(McKinley, 1980: 85f)

(USA) Democratic Party adopts platform plank based on union recommendations to ban factory employment for children under 15.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(USA) The first Vacation Bible School takes place in Hopedale, Illinois led by D.T. Miles.
(Wikipedia, 'Vacation Bible School', 2007; Wright, 1994; Moll, 2003)

(USA) In The Salvation Army, the "Band of Love." This was to provide for children drawn to the Army from non-Salvationist practices. This 'Band' was designed to be a magnat for erring youth. It offered useful instruction in things that appealed to the children of the 90s, like 'overhead scarf drills' and the proper use of the double hoop, while it exacted from the little trainess a pledge of good living, which included a promise to be kind to animals.
(McKinley, 1980: 86)

(US) The Volunteers of America begins when Ballington and Maud Booth resign from The Salvation Army.
(Magnuson, 1977: 4)

(USA) The first Salvation Army fresh air camp begins in Kansas City's Fairmont Park in the summer of 1897. This was the brain-child of the divisional officer, Brigadier Harry Stillwell.
(McKinley, 1980: 98)

(USA) In partnership with the wife of President Cleveland, Emma Booth-Tucker (the Consul) opens The Salvation Army's first home for orphans called Cherry Tree Home in Fordham, New York. This is soon relocated to Rutherford, New Jersey.
(McKinley, 1980: 86)

(USA) Eliza Hawes, director of the children's department at Epiphany Baptist Church in New York's East Side, begins an "Everyday Bible School" for slum children at a rented beer parlor. She continues her efforts for seven years.
(Wikipedia, 'Vacation Bible School', 2007; Moll, 2003)

(USA) The Salvation Army appoints a 'Junior Soldier Staff Secretary' to oversee the work of the junior corps in that division. In addition, there was to be a special non-commissioned officer in each Corps called the "Young People's Sergeant Major" (YPSM) to take charge of the youthful recruits. The two youth meetings per week continued at the minimum standard. Those among the young soldiers who felt inspired to offer themselves as officers in the Army were expected to enroll for further instruction as 'Corps Cadets. By 1900, there were 500 Corps Cadets.'
(McKinley, 1980: 86f)

(USA) The Salvation Army reports that it has established 396 regular junior corps.
(McKinley, 1980: 86)

(USA) The Salvation Army begins Camp Lake,Wisconsin. This was donated by The Chicago auxilliaries. It is considered the oldest continuing Army camp in the country.
(McKinley, 1980: 98)

(USA) National Child Labor Committee forms and launches an aggressive national campaign for federal child labor law reforms.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(INTL) Christian Endeavor has 67 000 societies worldwide with 4 000 000 members.
(Christian Endeavor, 2007)

(UK) The Boys Scouts Association is founded by Robert Bayden-Powell following the success of his book, Aids to Scouting. His inspiration was the Siege of Mafeking during the second Anglo-Boer War. On August 1, 1907, he tested his ideas on a camping trip on Bronsea Island which is seen as the beginning of scouting.

[NOTE: Harold Begbie wrote the biography of Robert Bayden-Powell as well as the biography of General William Booth - an interesting connection between The Salvation Army and the Boy Scouts]
(Duncan, 1999a: 195; Wikipedia, History of Youth Work, 2007)

(INTL) Canada becomes the first overseas dominion with a sanctioned Boy Scout program, followed by Austrailia, New Zealand and South Africa.

(USA) The Salvation Army begins to make use of Day Trips for slum children. These included day excusions across Long Island Sound, Chesapeake Bay, Lake Michigan, the Hudson River, and the Monongahela. These also included grand all-day trips for fifteen hundred Cleveland poor children who filled seven chartered streetcars for a trip to Euclid Beach to an amusement park and trip to the movies (led by Colonel Holz); driving fourteen automobiles to a nearby camp for the day (led by Colonel George French).
(McKinley, 1980: 97f)

(USA) The Salvation Army transforms its' last farm colony, Fort Herrick into a fresh air camp for Cleveland slum children.
(McKinley, 1980, 98; American War Cry, August 14, 1897, 7)

(USA) Ellen Key publishes Century of the Child
(Key, 1909)

(UK) The Girl Scouts Association (or Girl Guides) is founded by Agnes Baden-Powell.
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(USA) The Boy Scouts of America is founded by the progressive movement (a conservative response to the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution). After a visit to London, England in 1909, Chicago publisher, W.D. Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America.
(Wikipedia, Boy Scouts of America, 2007)

(UK) National Organization of Girls' Clubs (NOGC) founded
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(UK) The Girls Friendly Society has 200 000 members and 40 000 associates. However, they were criticized for failing to break down the class barriers that separated servants from masters and for not sufficiently backing the political emancipation of women.
(Brierly, 2003: 37)

(USA) In Chicago, Illionois, The Salvation Army coordinates its' first American Young People's Councils. Called 'an original plan,' the Councils offered three days of rallies and lectures for corps people responsible for youth work. Their young charges attended as well.
(McKinley, 1980: 98; American War Cry, November 8, 1913, 8)

(UK) Boys' Club 'pioneer' Charles Russell appointed to government post to tackle juvenile delinquency.
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(UK) Philanthropy receded with the end of the First World War. Whole youth groups had been slaughtered during the 'Great War'. No longer could the middle classes patronize working classes with acts of charity to the families of those who had lost so much in service of their country. They had proved their self-discipline, patriotism and industry. Just as the treatment of women could not return to the pre-war condition, so too, young people could no longer be ignored.
(Brierly, 2003: 34f)

(UK) Government encourages local authorities to support Juvenile Organization Committees (JOCs)
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(USA) First federal child labor law prohibits the movement of goods across state lines if minimum age laws are violated. This law was in effect until 1918 when it was declared unconstitutional.
(Child Labor, 2007)

1918 & 1921
(UK) Education Act empowers local juvenile organization committees to coordinate and stimulate youth provision. This is due to a rise in youth crime after World War 1. The Juvenile Oranization Committee enabled voluntary organizations to contribute to public policy.
(Brierly, 2003: 38f)

(INTL) The first World Jamboree of the Boy Scouts takes place in Olympia, London, England led by Lord Robert Baden-Powell.
(Scoutbase, 2007)

(USA) The Salvation Army's Lt.-Colonel John Allan pioneers the Army's first band camp.
(McKinley, 1980: 170)

(UK) The Christian Allaiance of Women and Girls is formed as a breakaway from the YWCA.
(Brierly, 2003: 37)

(UK) Board of Education circular empowers locals authorities to set up JOCs.
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(USA) Dr. Robert Boville of the New York Baptist Mission Society becomes aware of the work of Mrs. Eliza Hawes and uses it as a model for other churches. Utilizing students from Union Theological Seminary, he founds The World Association of Daily Vacation Bible Schools.
(Moll, 2003)

(USA) Standard Publishing produces the first printed VBS material.
(Moll, 2003)

(INTL) Second World Jamboree takes place in Copenhagen, Denmark. Five thousand Scouts from 34 nations assemble.
(Scoutbase, 2007)

(USA) First attempt to gain federal regulation of child labor fails.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(UK) National Association of Boys Clubs (NABC) founded.
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(USA) The Salvation Army begins Sunbeams - an import from Englad which was a version of Girl Guards for smaller girls.
(McKinley, 1980: 167)

(UK) NAOG becomes National Council of Girls' Clubs (NCGC)
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(INTL) Third World Jamboree takes place in Arrowepark, Birkenhead. Thirty-five countries are represnted by 30 000 Scouts.
(Scoutbase, 2007)

(INTL) Fourth World Jamboree takes place in Godollo, Hungary. Nearly 25 000 Scouts attend from thirty four countries.
(Scoutbase, 2007)

(USA) The Salvation Army begins Central Music Institute (CMI) at Camp Lake, Wisconsin, north of Chicago.
(McKinley, 1980: 170)

(USA) The Salvation Army begins Star Lake Musicamp in New Jersey.
(McKinley, 1980: 170)

(UK) Only 36 local committees are sponsored by the Juvenile Organization Committee still function - only 6 have full-time secretaries.
(Brierly, 2003: 39)

(UK) Local committees organize themselves into new national bodies such as The National Organization of Boys' Clubs and The National Federation of Young Farmers' Clubs.
(Brierly, 2003: 39)

(UK) Eleven organizations sponsor the Standing Conference of National Youth Organizations.
(Brierly, 2003: 39)

(UK) SCNVYO set up
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(USA) The Walsh-Healy Act states that the U.S. government will not purchase goods made by underage children.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(UK) In preparation for war, the Physical Training and Recreation Act empowers local authorities to fund facilities designed to raise the level of national fitness. Some youth centers are established to help support this. Local authorities were not only funding youth work, they were also capable of organizing it. Therefore, the State began to get involved in the Youth Service.
(Brierly, 2003: 39f; Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(INTL) Fifth World Jamboree takes place in Volgelenzeng, Holland. 27 000 Scouts attend from 51 countries.
(Scoutbase, 2007)

(USA) Second attempt to gain federal regulation of child labor fails.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(UK) The Boy Scouts grow in membership from 152 000 to 438 000 in 15 years.
(Brierly, 2003: 38)

(UK) The Boys' Brigade increases from 65 000 to 161 000.
(Brierly, 2003: 38)

(UK) The Central Youth Council of the Church of England is launched.
(Brierly, 2003: 39)

(UK) Club Leaders Association is founded
(Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(USA) Federal regulation of child labor achieved in Fair Labor Standards Act. For the first time, minimum ages of employment and hours of work for children are regulated by federal law.
(Child Labor, 2007)

(UK) The King George's Jubillee Trust publishes a report on the needs of young school-leavers. It acknowledges the repsonsibility of the State towards meeting the needs of young people.
(Brierly, 2003: 40; Duncan, 1999a: 195)

(UK) Urban young people are evacuated to the countryside to be cared for by other communities.
(Brierly, 2003; 42)

(UK) Government issues Circular 1486, The Service of Youth. which lead to the launch of the modern Youth Service.
(Brierly, 2003; 43; Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Government issues Circular 1516, The Challenge of Youth which provided a philosophy of youth work. It defines the primary purpose of youth work as being to provide young people with social and physical training. Character building was a reoccuring theme of this war-time initiative.
(Brierly, 2003; 44)

(UK) National Conference of Youth Service Officers established.
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) During the past two years, the rate of youth under 17 who are found guilty by the courts in England and Wales rise by over a third.
(Brierly, 2003; 43)

(UK) National Council of Girls' Clubs (NCGC) becomes National Association of Girls' Clubs (NAGC)
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Board of Education Youth Advisory Council set up.
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Compulsory registration of all 16 to 18-year olds.
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Beveridge report Social Security and Allied Services published
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Youth Advisory Council's first report Youth Service After the War published
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Board of Education white paper Educational Reconstruction published
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Training of Service for Girls of 14-16 published
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Her Majesty's Inspectorate (HMI) inspection of youth organizations introduced
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) The Education Act: Sections 41 and 53 places further responsibility on local authorities to provide 'adequate facilities' for the educational and recreational needs of young people without specifically mentioning the existence of the Youth Service.
(Brierly, 2003; 44; Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Board of Education becomes the Ministry of Education
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) NAGC becomes the National Association of Girls' Clubs and Mixed Clubs (NAGC&MC)
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) McNair publishes Teachers and Youth Leaders
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(USA) Youth for Christ is founded by the Reverend Billy Graham and evangelist Charles Templeton. Torrey Johnson was the first president.
(Wikipedia, Youth for Christ, 2007)

(UK) Second report of Youth Advisory Council entitled Purpose and Content of Youth Service
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) MAYC founded
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(INTL) After World War 2, European children face famine and disease. UNICEF is created in December, 1946 by the United Nations to provide food, clothing and health care to them
(UNICEF, 2007)

(UK) School leaving age raised to 15
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) Central Advisory Council on Education report School for Life
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) 1 800 full-time youth leaders are employed: the majority with volunteer organizations. Professional training is provided by one-year university courses, with additional training provided by the YMCA and the National Association of Boys' Clubs.
(Brierly, 2003; 44)

(UK) BYC established
(Duncan, 1999a: 196)

(UK) PEP report on Service of Youth Today
(Duncan, 1999a: 197)

(USA) The Salvation Army youth work gains recognition for its' role in the White House Conferences on Children and Youth in 1950 and 1960.
(McKinley, 1980: 191)

(INTL) Bob Pierce founds World Vision to help children orphaned in the Korean War. Their goal was to provide ongoing care to children in crisis.
(World Vision, 2007)

(UK) the trial of Derek Bentley and Christopher Craig for the muder of a policeman appears to be symptomatic of a general rise in youth crime. Prejudice against immigrants also leads to race riots involving 'Teddy Boys'.
(Brierly, 2003; 45)

(UK) The number of full-time youth leaders had fallen by almost two-thirds. The post-war baby boom was projected to increase the number of fourteen to twenty year olds by 800 000 (20%)
(Brierly, 2003; 45)

(INTL) UNICEF becomes a part of the United Nations. They immediately begin a campaign against yaws, a disfiguring disease affecting millions of children, and one that can be cured with pennicilen.
(UNICEF, 2007)

(INTL) World Vision begins its child sponsorship program.
(World Vision, 2007)

(INTL) Danny Kaye becomes UNICEF's Ambassador-at-large. His film, Assignment Children is seen by over 100 million people.
(UNICEF, 2007)

(UK) Compulsory education is extended to the age of 15; and the abolition of National Service leads to an increase in free time for adolscencts. This fuels a moral panic which fears an increase in anti-social behavior.
(Brierly, 2003; 45)

(INTL) Tenth World Jamboree takes place in Lagune, Phillipine Islands. 12 000 Scouts from 69 nations attend.
(Scoutbase, 2007)

(INTL) The United Nations publishes their Declaration on the Rights of the Child. This defines children's rights to protection, education, health care, shelter and good nutrition.
(United Nations, 1959; UNICEF, 2007)

(INTL) UNICEF expands to look at the needs of the whole child, firstly addressing education issues in newly independent countries.
(UNICEF, 2007)

(USA) The Salvation Army's Major Mary Nisiewicz begins a crusade on East 125th street among New York's ghetto youth and drug addicts.
(McKinley, 1980: 1999)

(INTL) UNICEF is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 'for the promotion of brotherhood among nations.'
(UNICEF, 2007)

(USA) Youth Specialties is founded by Mike Yaconelli and Wayne Rice.
(Youth Specialties, 2007)

(USA) Youth Specialties hosts their first annual Youth Worker's Convention.
(Youth Specialties, 2007)

(USA) Zondervan begins to publish books by Youth Specialties
(Youth Specialties, 2007)

(USA) Brigadier Leslie Hall directed a special bureau for the development of federal grants in the Southern Territory in 1978-79. Governmental agencies have helped to finance 'juvenile delinquency prevention services' in five southern cities.
(McKinley, 1980: 212)

(USA) Urie Bronfenbrenner publishes The ecology of human development
(Bronfenbrenner, 1979)

(INTL) International Year of the Child is marked by celebrations around the world. People and organizations reaffirm their commitment to children's rights.
(UNICEF, 2007)

(USA) Dan Spader founds SonLife Ministries to help youth leaders build effective youth ministries.
(SonLife, 2007)

(USA) Bill Wilson begins Sidewalk Sunday Schools in Brooklyn, New York - which eventually becomes Metro Ministries.
(Metro Ministries, 2007)

(USA) Youth Specialties begins to publish their Youthworker journal to help elevate professionalism in youth ministry. The editor was Noel Becchetti.
(Youth Specialities, 2007)

(USA) Robert Coles publishes The moral life of children
(Coles, 1986)

(INTL) Convention on the Rights of the Child coordinated by the UN General Assembly. It becomes the most widely- and rapidly- accepted human rights treaty in history.
(United Nations, 1989; UNICEF, 2007)
(USA) Robert Coles publishes The spiritual life of children
(Coles, 1990)

(INTL) World Summit for Children. Heads of state and government meet at the United Nations to set 10-year goals for children's health, nutrition, and education.
(UNICEF, 2007)

(USA) Bill Wilson is appointed to President Bush's National Commission on America's Urban Families
(Metro Ministries, 2007)

(USA) Alex Kotlowitz publishes There are no children here
(Kotlowitz, 1992)

(USA) Jonathan Kozol publishes Amazing grace: The lives of children and the conscience of a nation.
(Kozol, 1996)

(USA) Robert Coles publishes The moral intelligence of children
(Coles, 1997)

(INTL) The Global Movement for Children begins mobilizing every citizen of every nation to chang the world with children. The Say Yes to Children campaign builds on the momentum, with millions of children and adults around the world pledging their support for critical actions to improve the lives of children.
(UNICEF, 2007)

(INTL) A special session of the UN General Assembly was convened to review the progress since the World Summit on Children in 1990 and reenergize commitment to children's rights.
(UNICEF, 2007)

(INTL) Twentieth World Jamboree takes place in Sattahip, Thailand. 35 000 Scouts attend from almost every country in the world.
(Scoutbase, 2007)


Brierly, Danny. (2003). Joined up: An introduction to youthwork and ministry. Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Authentic Lifestyle.

Bronfenbrenner, Urie. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Camp Dudley. (2007). 'Mid Mountains and Lakes.' (Downloaded: August, 2007).

Child Labor Public Education Project. (2007). 'Child labor in US history.' (Downloaded: August, 2007).

Christian Endeavor. (2007). 'Built to last beyond its time.' (Downloaded: August, 2007).

Coles, Robert. (1997). The moral intelligence of children. New York: Random House.

Coles, Robert. (1990). The spiritual life of children. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Coles, Robert. (1986). The moral life of children. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Duncan, Denise (ed). (1999a). A history of youth service in England. Volume 1: 1939 - 1979 From voluntaryism to state welfare. Leicester, UK: National Youth Agency.

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candy said...

This is absolutely amazing!!! Big thumbs up for helping with with my essay :)
A couple bits of info you could add for UK info is:
1883 boys brigade
1939 youth service set up by youth ministry
McNair Report 1944
Albemarle Report 1960
Hunt Report 1967
Thompson Report 1982

Steve Bussey said...

Thanks so much. I'll most certainly add these!